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A black and white photograph of a landscape portrays of two high mountains; both are covered in snow. The mountain found in the background is smaller than the one in front. Pine trees are spread along the two mountains. A third lower surface is found in front of the picture, it is covered in grass but no snow at all. Identification and Creation Object Number 2.2002.1016 People Timothy H. O'Sullivan, American (New York, New York 1840 - 1882 Staten Island, New York) Title Snow Peaks, Bull Run Mining District, Nevada. Other Titles Series/Book Title: Explorations in Nevada and Arizona. Wheeler Expedition of 1871, no. 1 Classification Photographs Work Type photograph Date 1871 Places Creation Place: North America, United States, Nevada Culture American Persistent Link Physical Descriptions Technique Albumen silver print Dimensions image: 20.2 x 27.5 cm (7 15/16 x 10 13/16 in.)mount: 40.6 x 50.6 cm (16 x 19 15/16 in.) Inscriptions and Marks inscription: recto, top center, graphite: Sci2600.290 stamp: recto, top center, pre-printed mount: WAR DEPARTMENT [over] CORPS OF ENGINEERS. U.S. ARMY. stamp: recto, top edge above image, pre-printed mount: Explorations in Nevada and Arizona. Expedition of 1871 - Lieut. Geo. M. Wheeler, Com'd'g. stamp: recto, bottom edge below image, pre-printed mouny: T.H. O'Sullivan, Phot. No. 1 [over] SNOW PEAKS, BULL RUN MINING DISTRICT, NEVADA. Acquisition and Rights Credit Line Harvard Art Museums/Fogg Museum, Transfer from the Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Transferred from the Museum of Comparative Zoology Library, Gift of the U.S. War Department, 1877 Accession Year 2011 Object Number 2.2002.1016 Division European and American Art Contact firstname.lastname@example.org Permissions The Harvard Art Museums encourage the use of images found on this website for personal, noncommercial use, including educational and scholarly purposes. To request a higher resolution file of this image, please submit an online request.
Atmospheric CO2 levels inferred by stomatal index are as high as 4000-5500 ppmv in the mid-Cretaceous. Paleoclimatic proxy data suggests that surface temperatures in the Arctic ocean and on land are 15C and up to 10C, respectively. Previous modeling studies with less than 3000 ppmv CO2 were not able to simulate temperature as warm as those inferred by proxies. In this study, we conduct four simulations with mid-Cretaceous paleogeography using two coupled ocean-atmosphere circulation models, CCSM3 and GENMOM. Atmospheric CO2 levels were prescribed at 10x and 16x pre-industrial levels (PIL; 2800 ppmv and 4480 ppmv). CCSM3 and GENMOM have somewhat different sensitivities to CO2 forcing. From 2800 ppmv to 4480 ppmv, the mean-annual surface temperatures over the Arctic regions increases from 0.7C to 7C in GENMOM and from 7.1C to 8.7C in CCSM3; mean-annual precipitation rates increases from 1.55 mm/day to 1.97 mm/day in GENMOM and from 1.88 mm/day to 1.99 mm/day in CCSM3. The different sensitivities are associated with differences in sea-ice and snow cover through surface albedo. In the two CCSM3 experiments, surface albedos over the Arctic region are identical due to the absence of substantial sea ice and snow cover. As a result, the temperature increases are about the same in the tropics and Arctic regions. Additionally, there are no appreciable changes in latent heat fluxes and cloud forcing over the Arctic region. However, in the two GENMOM experiments, surface albedo over the Arctic region decreases by 50% from 2800 ppmv to 4480 ppmv. Due to the reduction of sea ice cover, latent heat fluxes as well as convective cloud fraction increase by 1/3. As a results of those feedbacks, the temperature increase in the Arctic regions is more than twice of that in the tropics. In addition, the intermodel discrepancy decreases with the higher CO2, when both CCSM3 and GENMOM are free of sea ice. A model-proxy comparison will also be discussed in addition to the model-model comparison. 041b061a72